RESEARCH QUESTIONS. Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought. Formulate the Research Question. If this study shows that there is a positive correlation, we might want to ask an additional question that will explain the reasons for this association (e.g. For instance, if you want to know if there is a significant difference between two variables, the t-test would be one possible statistical method. The editorial board of a journal wants to make sure their content will be useful to as many people as possible, so it’s not surprising that quantitative research dominates the academic literature. clearly defined research question - 4534778 Quantitative descriptive questions like this one are helpful in social work practice as part of community scans, in which human service agencies survey the various needs of the community they serve. Better socialization? A research question helps us define what we hope to learn when we conduct our study. Perhaps you want to study the effect of a specific anti-homelessness program that you found in the literature. Research can be undertaken in a variety of settings (the types of place where information is gathered), like in hospitals, homes, or other community settings. As you can see, the possibilities for making your question more specific are almost infinite. Quantitative Research Questions THREE RULES for Quantitative Research Questions 1. But remember, any new question(s) that arise should be undertaken separately from your first study. Open-ended questions are asked in a manner that encourages answers that lead to another question or group of questions. Research questions should be defined in advance to allow identification of the appropriate study design, and they should be documented in a protocol before commencing the study. In quantitative research, it is all about numerical data and running some type of statistical analysis. A quantitative research question is usually followed by a hypothesis — this is a prediction of what we think our study will find; a statement that answers the initial speculative research question. A well-designed research question will set your study up for future success. Example: To what extent can a certain diet predict the onset of a stroke. Step 1. Example:  What is the relationship between years on the job and a sense of loyalty to the company? What is the relationship between sexual orientation or gender identity and homelessness for late adolescents in foster care? Quantitative descriptive questions are arguably the easiest types of questions to formulate. What causes foster children who are transitioning to adulthood to become homeless, jobless, pregnant, unhealthy, etc.? For example, “What is the average student debt load of MSW students?” is an important descriptive question. Unlike qualitative research, quantitative research is generally not used in the early stages of research for exploring a question or scoping out a problem. A standard format for an explanatory quantitative research question is: “What is the relation between [independent variable] and [dependent variable] for [target population]?” You should play with the wording for your research question, revising it as you see fit. These questions help in focusing the study and Competitive Exams, deciding the methodology and also play a vital role in inquiry, reporting and analysis stages of a research.The first active step in a research is the research question. You are often drawing your conclusions by manipulating the independent variable and observing the effects on the dependent variable (DV). Examples of Correlational Research. Quantitative descriptive questions are helpful for community scans but cannot investigate causal relationships between variables. Specifically, for quantitative research questions, you can follow these basic steps: Your type of research question will determine the way you collect your quantitative data and also the statistical analysis that will follow. The goal is to make the research question reflect what you really want to know in your study. The only way to ensure your study stays focused and clear is to be specific about what you mean by a concept. It establishes which part of the (previously identified) problem our study will try to solve for the reader. Characteristics of a quantitative research project • Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought • All aspects are carefully and precisely designed before data collection • Data are in the form of numbers and statistics • … If your desire is to perform a qualitative study, it will probably be a lot easier to develop your research question if you first become familiar with some of qualitative research’s basic … The sample size is usually restricted to 6-10 people. To do that, we need to use a quantitative explanatory question. These are the bases of the structured research questions developed and validated. it is difficult to claim with certainty that one thing alone can predict another). If you are uncertain about the differences between quantitative and qualitative research and research questions, you can first read the posts Choosing between Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, and Qualitative vs Quantitative Research Questions. While reading the table, keep in mind that it only includes some of the most relevant strengths and weaknesses of each question. In the first example, the dependent variable is daily calorific intake (i.e., calories consumed per day). Describe characteristics of quantitative research and give one concrete example. Reduced symptoms of a mental health issue? What outcome should the program or intervention have? The type of research you are conducting will impact the research question that you ask. The inverse can also be true. Table 4.1 does just that. Thesis Writing & Dissertation | Academic Writing Help for Those Feeling Stuck, Choosing between Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population. It can be defined as research that explains phenom Select the structure of the question; for example, sometimes the dependent variable will come first, and in other use cases it will go last. Chapter 3 of your Thesis or Dissertation is given different names such as ‘Research Design’, ‘Research Methods’ and so forth. To write research questions that integrate the variables of the study, you should be able to define what is a variable.If this term is already quite familiar to you, and you are confident in your understanding, you may read the rest of … Research Topic Example #1: What percentage of college students have … Most studies you read in the academic literature will be quantitative and explanatory. As the most basic type of quantitative research question, descriptive questions seek to explain when, where, why, or how something occurred. Broad questions like “What are the causes of chronic homelessness, and what can be done to prevent it?” are common at the beginning stages of a research project. Quantitative explanatory questions must include an independent and dependent variable. You may want to focus on a potential cause of homelessness such as LGBTQ discrimination that you find interesting or relevant to your practice. For example, “What is the average student debt load of MSW students?” is a descriptive question—and an important one. Quantitative research is widely used in the natural and social sciences: biology, chemistry, psychology, economics, sociology, marketing, etc. Format your content like this investigation for a foolproof thesis paper. Why is that? A representative sample resembles important characteristics of the population from which it was drawn, in ways that are important for the research being conducted. Certainly each question may have additional strengths and weaknesses not noted in the table. examples of questions throughout the process, as well as provide some notes on the support of technologies. In quantitative research, you usually work with at least two variables. Clearly, this descriptive research question is asking us to measure the number of calories American men and women consume per day. Since quantitative research has well-established strategies and methods but quali tative research is still growing and becoming more differentiated in methodological approaches, greater consideration will be given to the latter. How to write a research question. They use a particular (simplified) formula: Here, you are asking if two variables are correlated, and whether they are correlated negatively or positively. What causes or effects are you interested in? Don’t assume that your reader understands what you mean by “and so forth.”, Describe how research questions for exploratory, descriptive, and explanatory quantitative questions differ and how to phrase them, Identify the differences between and provide examples of strong and weak explanatory research questions. One commonality is the complexity of the research questions and the relationships between them. The research question also has to align with a methodology (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed) as well as with a specific design that is supported by the methodology. Questions in qualitative research can be described as an inverted pyramid, beginning with a broad, overarching question and narrowing down to focus on the “why” and In the second example, the … Questions should ask about the relation between these variables. Guidebook for Social Work Literature Reviews and Research Questions, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. The first thing that comes in mind while writing a research paper is whether it is qualitative or quantitative in nature.. But are your definition and the students’ definition the same? Effective, Effectiveness, Useful, Efficient. Guidebook for Social Work Literature Reviews and Research Questions by Rebecca Mauldin and Matthew DeCarlo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Descriptive questions may only include one variable, such as ours about debt load, or they may include multiple variables. A systematic review is based on a pre-defined specific research question (Cochrane Handbook, 1.1).Well-formulated questions will guide many aspects of the review process, including determining eligibility criteria, searching for studies, collecting data from included studies, and presenting findings (Cochrane Handbook, 2.1). In quantitative research, you usually work with at least two variables. If you are conducting your quantitative research, you can use this research as an example for your study. Quantitative research question examples Definition of the Terms What is quantitative research? If the scan reveals that the community requires more services related to housing, child care, or day treatment for people with disabilities, a nonprofit office can use the community scan to create new programs that meet a defined community need. A research question forms the basic and core unit of a research project, review of literature and study. There are various categories of primary quantitative research. A group of students investigating gender and household tasks knows what they mean by “household tasks.” You likely also have an impression of what “household tasks” means. •Guidelines for writing –Pose a question… How does race impact rates of mental health diagnosis for children in foster care? The use of Research Questions as opposed to objectives or hypothesis, is more frequent. How does income inequality predict ambivalence in the Stereo Content Model using major U.S. cities as target populations? It is important that one of those variables is an independent variable (IV). The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability. Research called “A Quantitative Study of Teacher Perceptions of Professional Learning Communities’ Context, Process, and Content,” looks into these queries. When we know that two variables have a relationship, we want to see if we can predict one from the other. This research questions serve as the backbone of the research. A quantitative research question is usually followed by a hypothesis — this is a prediction of what we think our study will find; a statement that answers the initial speculative research question. If we were to ask, “What outcomes are associated with family preservation services in child welfare?”, we would have a clear independent variable, family preservation services, but an unclear dependent variable, outcomes. Write your question down and get feedback about its focus and clarity from fellow students and your advisors. Considers relation among multiple concepts, Not specific and clear about the concepts it addresses. Let’s take a look at a few more examples of possible research questions and consider the relative strengths and weaknesses of each. Choosing between qualitative vs. quantitative research can be challenging, especially if you do not know their differences. It can be challenging in social work research to be this specific, particularly when you are just starting out your investigation of the topic. How does income inequality affect ambivalence in high-density urban areas? A specific anti-homelessness program that you ask in your topic to clearly address the concepts in your research question the. Some “ watch example of clearly defined research question in quantitative research highlighted in table 4.2 are not problematic at all usually be replicated or,. At all associated with children witnessing domestic violence impact a child ’ s take a look our. 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